It is a well-established formal dogma in the Church that the Bible (Sacred Scripture) is entirely without error. Everything that the Bible asserts as true is certainly true, in the sense, to the extent, and in the way, that the Bible says that it is true. The proper interpretation of a passage can be a matter of some pious disagreement among the faithful, as long as the Magisterium has not yet ruled on its meaning. But it is abject heresy for any Catholic to claim that the Bible contains an error on any subject, whether the subject is faith and morals, or science and history.
However, this does not imply that the Bible is entirely literal. Some parts of Sacred Scripture are figurative, and other parts are literal. The teaching that we must love our neighbor is partly literal, as in literal true selfless spiritual love, and partly figurative, in that our neighbor includes persons who live far away from us, who are treated as if they were neighbors.
A common heresy today is the claim that the Bible is only inerrant on matters of faith and morals, or in matters pertaining to salvation. But that claim has been repeatedly thoroughly rejected by the Magisterium: Seven Words on the Inerrancy of Sacred Scripture.
We might not understand what a particular passage of Sacred Scripture means. Or we might not see how it can be true or in what way it is true. But as a matter of faith, we must believe that the Bible is entirely free from error.
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